We prove that a particular pushing-blocks puzzle is intractable in 2D, improving an earlier result that established intractability in 3D [OS99]. The puzzle, inspired by the game *PushPush*, consists of unit square blocks on an integer lattice. An agent may push blocks (but never pull them) in attempting to move between given start and goal positions. In the PushPush version, the agent can only push one block at a time, and moreover, each block, when pushed, slides the maximal extent of its free range. We prove this version is NP-hard in 2D by reduction from SAT.
Demaine, Erik D.; Demaine, Martin L.; and O'Rourke, Joseph, "PushPush is NP-Hard in 2D" (2000). Faculty Publications. Paper 74.