Alexander Madurowicz, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Bruce Macintosh, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Jeffrey Chilcote, University of Notre Dame
Marshall Perrin, Space Telescope Science Institute
Lisa Poyneer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Laurent Pueyo, Space Telescope Science Institute
Jean Baptiste Ruffio, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Vanessa P. Bailey, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Travis Barman, The University of Arizona
Joanna Bulger, National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
Tara Cotten, University of Georgia
Robert J. De Rosa, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Rene Doyon, Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes
Gaspard Duchêne, University of California, Berkeley
Thomas M. Esposito, University of California, Berkeley
Michael P. Fitzgerald, University of California, Los Angeles
Katherine B. Follette, Amherst College
Benjamin L. Gerard, University of Victoria
Stephen J. Goodsell, Gemini Observatory
James R. Graham, University of California, Berkeley
Alexandra Z. Greenbaum, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Pascale Hibon, European Southern Observatory Santiago
Li Wei Hung, Natural Sounds and Night Skies Division
Patrick Ingraham, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope
Paul Kalas, University of California, Berkeley
Quinn Konopacky, Center for Astrophysics & Space Sciences
Jérôme Maire, Center for Astrophysics & Space Sciences
Franck Marchis, SETI Institute
Mark S. Marley, NASA Ames Research Center
Christian Marois, National Research Council Canada
Stanimir Metchev, Western University
Maxwell A. Millar-Blanchaer, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Kimberly Ward-Duong, Arizona State UniversityFollow

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems


An explanation for the origin of asymmetry along the preferential axis of the point spread function (PSF) of an AO system is developed. When phase errors from high-altitude turbulence scintillate due to Fresnel propagation, wavefront amplitude errors may be spatially offset from residual phase errors. These correlated errors appear as asymmetry in the image plane under the Fraunhofer condition. In an analytic model with an open-loop AO system, the strength of the asymmetry is calculated for a single mode of phase aberration, which generalizes to two dimensions under a Fourier decomposition of the complex illumination. Other parameters included are the spatial offset of the AO correction, which is the wind velocity in the frozen flow regime multiplied by the effective AO time delay and propagation distance or altitude of the turbulent layer. In this model, the asymmetry is strongest when the wind is slow and nearest to the coronagraphic mask when the turbulent layer is far away, such as when the telescope is pointing low toward the horizon. A great emphasis is made about the fact that the brighter asymmetric lobe of the PSF points in the opposite direction as the wind, which is consistent analytically with the clarification that the image plane electric field distribution is actually the inverse Fourier transform of the aperture plane. Validation of this understanding is made with observations taken from the Gemini Planet Imager, as well as being reproducible in end-to-end AO simulations.


Adaptive optics, Fresnel propagation, Point-spread functions, Scintillation, Turbulence










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