Eric L. Nielsen, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Robert J. De Rosa, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Bruce Macintosh, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Jason J. Wang, California Institute of Technology
Jean Baptiste Ruffio, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Eugene Chiang, University of California, Berkeley
Mark S. Marley, NASA Ames Research Center
Didier Saumon, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Dmitry Savransky, Cornell University College of Engineering
S. Mark Ammons, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Vanessa P. Bailey, Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Travis Barman, The University of Arizona
Célia Blain, National Research Council Canada
Joanna Bulger, National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
Adam Burrows, Princeton University
Jeffrey Chilcote, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Tara Cotten, University of Georgia
Ian Czekala, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Rene Doyon, Institut de Recherche sur les Exoplanètes
Gaspard Duchene, University of California, Berkeley
Thomas M. Esposito, University of California, Berkeley
Daniel Fabrycky, The University of Chicago
Michael P. Fitzgerald, University of California, Los Angeles
Katherine B. Follette, Amherst College
Jonathan J. Fortney, University of California, Santa Cruz
Benjamin L. Gerard, National Research Council Canada
Stephen J. Goodsell, Gemini Observatory
James R. Graham, University of California, Berkeley
Alexandra Z. Greenbaum, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Pascale Hibon, European Southern Observatory Santiago
Sasha Hinkley, University of Exeter
Lea A. Hirsch, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
Kimberly Ward-Duong, Arizona State UniversityFollow
et al, Various Institutions

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Astronomical Journal


We present a statistical analysis of the first 300 stars observed by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey. This subsample includes six detected planets and three brown dwarfs; from these detections and our contrast curves we infer the underlying distributions of substellar companions with respect to their mass, semimajor axis, and host stellar mass. We uncover a strong correlation between planet occurrence rate and host star mass, with stars M ∗ >1.5 M o more likely to host planets with masses between 2 and 13M Jup and semimajor axes of 3-100 au at 99.92% confidence. We fit a double power-law model in planet mass (m) and semimajor axis (a) for planet populations around high-mass stars (M ∗ >1.5 M o) of the form , finding α = -2.4 +0.8 and β = -2.0 +0.5, and an integrated occurrence rate of % between 5-13M Jup and 10-100 au. A significantly lower occurrence rate is obtained for brown dwarfs around all stars, with % of stars hosting a brown dwarf companion between 13-80M Jup and 10-100 au. Brown dwarfs also appear to be distributed differently in mass and semimajor axis compared to giant planets; whereas giant planets follow a bottom-heavy mass distribution and favor smaller semimajor axes, brown dwarfs exhibit just the opposite behaviors. Comparing to studies of short-period giant planets from the radial velocity method, our results are consistent with a peak in occurrence of giant planets between ∼1 and 10 au. We discuss how these trends, including the preference of giant planets for high-mass host stars, point to formation of giant planets by core/pebble accretion, and formation of brown dwarfs by gravitational instability.


instrumentation: adaptive optics, planetary systems, planets and satellites: detection










© 2019. The American Astronomical Society.


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