PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the world’s foremost debilitating infectious diseases with nearly 800 million people at risk of infection. Given that LF is a mosquito-borne disease, the use of molecular xenomonitoring (MX) to detect parasite DNA/RNA in mosquitoes can serve as a valuable tool for LF monitoring and evaluation, particularly in Culexvector areas. We investigated using MX in a low-level prevalence district of Tamil Nadu, India by applying a household-based sampling strategy to determine trap location sites. Two independent mosquito samples were collected in each of a higher human infection hotspot area (sites with community microfilaria prevalence �1%) and across a larger evaluation area that also encompassed the hotspots. Pooled results showed mostly reproducible outcomes in both settings and a significant higher pool positivity in the hotspot area. A follow-up survey conducted two years later reconfirmed these findings while also showing a reduction in pool positivity and estimated prevalence of infection in mosquitoes in both settings. The utilization of a household-based sampling strategy for MX proved effective and should be further validated in wider epidemiological settings.
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© 2017 Subramanian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Subramanian, Swaminathan; Jambulingam, Purushothaman; Chu, Brian K.; Sadanandane, Candasamy; Vasuki, Venkatesan; Srividya, Adinarayanan; Mohideen AbdulKader, Mohamed S.; Krishnamoorthy, Kaliannagounder; Raju, Harikishan K.; Laney, Sandra J.; Williams, Steven A.; and Henderson, Ralph H., "Application of a Household-Based Molecular Xenomonitoring Strategy to Evaluate the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program in Tamil Nadu, India" (2017). Biological Sciences: Faculty Publications, Smith College, Northampton, MA.