Document Type

Article

Publication Date

4-27-2018

Publication Title

Gates Open Research

Abstract

Background: Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the testing of insect vectors for the presence of human pathogens, has the potential to provide a non-invasive and cost-effective method for monitoring the prevalence of disease within a community. Current MX methods require the capture and processing of large numbers of mosquitoes, particularly in areas of low endemicity, increasing the time, cost and labour required. Screening the excreta/feces (E/F) released from mosquitoes, rather than whole carcasses, improves the throughput by removing the need to discriminate vector species since non-vectors release ingested pathogens in E/F. It also enables larger numbers of mosquitoes to be processed per pool. However, this new screening approach requires a method of efficiently collecting E/F.

Methods: We developed a cone with a superhydrophobic surface to allow for the efficient collection of E/F. Using mosquitoes exposed to either Plasmodium falciparum, Brugia malayi or Trypanosoma brucei brucei, we tested the performance of the superhydrophobic cone alongside two other collection methods.

Results: All collection methods enabled the detection of DNA from the three parasites. Using the superhydrophobic cone to deposit E/F into a small tube provided the highest number of positive samples (16 out of 18) and facilitated detection of parasite DNA in E/F from individual mosquitoes. Further tests showed that following a simple washing step, the cone can be reused multiple times, further improving its cost-effectiveness.

Conclusions: Incorporating the superhydrophobic cone into mosquito traps or holding containers could provide a simple and efficient method for collecting E/F. Where this is not possible, swabbing the container or using the washing method facilitates the detection of the three parasites used in this study.

Keywords

Xenomonitoring, malaria, filariasis, Trypanosoma, Brugia, Plasmodium, Anopheles, superhydrophobic

Volume

1

Issue

7

DOI

10.12688/gatesopenres.12749.2

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Rights

© 2018 Cook DAN et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Included in

Biology Commons

Share

COinS
 
 

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.