Applications of machine learning combined with AI algorithms have propelled unprecedented economic disruptions across diverse fields in industry, military, medicine, finance, and others. With the forecast for even larger impacts, the present economic impact of machine learning is estimated in the trillions of dollars. But as autonomous machines become ubiquitous, recent problems have surfaced. Early on, and again in 2018, Judea Pearl warned AI scientists they must "build machines that make sense of what goes on in their environment," a warning still unheeded that may impede future development. For example, self-driving vehicles often rely on sparse data; self-driving cars have already been involved in fatalities, including a pedestrian; and yet machine learning is unable to explain the contexts within which it operates.
Baldini, Ioana; Barrett, Clark; Chella, Antonio; Cinelli, Carlos; Gamez, David; Gilpin, Leilani H.; Hinkelmann, Knut; Holmes, Dylan; Kido, Takashi; Kocaoglu, Murat; Lawless, William F.; Lomuscio, Alessio; Macbeth, Jamie C.; Martin, Andreas; Mittu, Ranjeev; Patterson, Evan; Sofge, Donald; Tadepalli, Prasad; Takadama, Keiki; and Wilson, Shomir, "Reports of the AAAI 2019 Spring Symposium Series" (2019). Computer Science: Faculty Publications, Smith College, Northampton, MA.