Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education


One approach to providing affordable operator training in the workplace is to augment applications with intelligent embedded training systems (ETS). Intelligent embedded training is highly interactive: trainees practice realistic problem-solving tasks on the prime application with guidance and feedback from the training system. This article makes three contributions to the theory and technology of ETS design. First, we describe a framework based on Norman’s “stages of user activity” model for defining the instructional objectives of an ETS. Second, we demonstrate a non-invasive approach to instrumenting software applications, thereby enabling them to collaborate with an ETS. Third, we describe a method for interpreting observed user behavior during problem solving, and using that information to provide task-oriented hints on demand.



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Archived as published. Open access article.



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