No Agency Without Grassroots Autonomy: A Framework for Evaluating Women’s Political Inclusion in Jordan, Bahrain, and Morocco
Empowering Women after the Arab Spring
Palgrave Macmillan US : Imprint: Palgrave Macmillan
Today every state in the Middle East and North Africa incorporates women into the political process to some degree, but the extent of women’s political influence varies across the region. This chapter explores the experiences of women in the kingdoms of Bahrain, Jordan, and Morocco—three monarchies sometimes highlighted as success stories in terms of women’s empowerment. I argue that the presence of autonomous grassroots mobilization is key in facilitating women’s substantive political influence. That autonomy is at least partially contingent on the absence of internal mechanisms of control and rival agenda-setting such as GONGOs.