European Physical Journal C
We discuss the implications of our prior results obtained in our companion paper (Eur. Phys. J. C (2013). doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-013-2298-9). Inescapably, they lead to three laws governing the size of hadrons, including in particular protons and neutrons that make up the bulk of ordinary matter: (a) there are no radial excitations in low-energy QCD; (b) the size of a hadron is largest in its ground state; (c) the hadron’s size shrinks when its orbital excitation increases. The second and third laws follow from the first law. It follows that the path from confinement to asymptotic freedom is a Regge trajectory. It also follows that the top quark is a free, albeit short-lived, quark.
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Friedmann, Tamar, "No Radial Excitations in Low Energy QCD. II. The Shrinking Radius of Hadrons" (2013). Mathematics and Statistics: Faculty Publications, Smith College, Northampton, MA.