We report measurements in a 2-dimensional, gravity-driven, collisional, granular flow of the normal force delivered to the wall and of particle velocity at several points in the flow. The wall force and the flow velocity are negatively correlated. This correlation falls off only slowly when the wall force is correlated against the flow velocity at various locations across the channel, but dies away on the scale of a few particle diameters upstream or downstream. The data support a picture of short-lived chains of frequently colliding particles that extend transverse to the flow direction, making transient load-bearing bridges that cause bulk fluctuations in the flow velocity. The time-dependence of these spatial correlation functions indicate that while the force-bearing structures are local in space, their influence extends far upstream in the flow, albeit with a time-lag. This leads to correlated velocity fluctuations, whose spatial range increases as the jamming threshold is approached.
© the authors
Gardel, Emily; Keene, Ellen; Dragulin, Sonia; Easwar, Nalini; and Menon, Narayanan, "Force-Velocity Correlations in a Dense, Collisional, Granular Flow" (2005). Physics: Faculty Publications, Smith College, Northampton, MA.