European Journal of Social Psychology
We investigated whether any differences in the psychological conceptualization of hate and dislike were simply a matter of degree of negativity (i.e., hate falls on the end of the continuum of dislike) or also morality (i.e., hate is imbued with distinct moral components that distinguish it from dislike). In three lab studies in Canada and the United States, participants reported disliked and hated attitude objects and rated each on dimensions including valence, attitude strength, morality, and emotional content. Quantitative and qualitative measures revealed that hated attitude objects were more negative than disliked attitude objects and associated with moral beliefs and emotions, even after adjusting for differences in negativity. In Study 4, we analysed the rhetoric on real hate sites and complaint forums and found that the language used on prominent hate websites contained more words related to morality, but not negativity, relative to complaint forums.
attitudes, dislike, emotions, hate, morality
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Pretus, Clara; Ray, Jennifer L.; Granot, Yael; Cunningham, William A.; and Van Bavel, Jay J., "The Psychology of Hate: Moral Concerns Differentiate Hate from Dislike" (2022). Psychology: Faculty Publications, Smith College, Northampton, MA.
Archived as published. Open access article.