David M. Raizen, University of Pennsylvania
Janet Mullington
Christelle Anaclet, UC Davis School of Medicine
Gerard Clarke, APC Microbiome Ireland
Hugo Critchley, University of Sussex
Robert Dantzer, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Ronald Davis, Stanford University
Kelly L. Drew, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Josh Fessel, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)
Patrick M. Fuller
Erin M. Gibson, Stanford University
Mary Harrington, Smith CollegeFollow
W. Ian Lipkin, Columbia University
Elizabeth B. Klerman, Harvard Medical School
Nancy Klimas, Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine
Anthony L. Komaroff, Harvard Medical School
Walter Koroshetz, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Lauren Krupp, NYU Grossman School of Medicine
Anna Kuppuswamy, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
Julie Lasselin, Stockholms universitet
Laura D. Lewis, Boston University College of Engineering
Pierre J. Magistretti, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Heidi Y. Matos, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Christine Miaskowski, University of California, San Francisco
Andrew H. Miller, Emory University School of Medicine
Avindra Nath, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Maiken Nedergaard, University of Rochester Medical Center
Mark R. Opp, University of Colorado Boulder
Marylyn D. Ritchie, University of Pennsylvania
Dragana Rogulja, Harvard Medical School
Asya Rolls, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
John D. Salamone, University of Connecticut

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A workshop titled “Beyond the Symptom: The Biology of Fatigue” was held virtually September 27–28, 2021. It was jointly organized by the Sleep Research Society and the Neurobiology of Fatigue Working Group of the NIH Blueprint Neuroscience Research Program. For access to the presentations and video recordings, see: The goals of this workshop were to bring together clinicians and scientists who use a variety of research approaches to understand fatigue in multiple conditions and to identify key gaps in our understanding of the biology of fatigue. This workshop summary distills key issues discussed in this workshop and provides a list of promising directions for future research on this topic. We do not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the state of our understanding of fatigue, nor to provide a comprehensive reprise of the many excellent presentations. Rather, our goal is to highlight key advances and to focus on questions and future approaches to answering them.










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