Publication Date


Document Type

Masters Thesis


School for Social Work


Hmong Americans-Mental health-Minnesota, Hmong Americans-Mental health-California, Hmong Americans-Minnesota-Psychology, Hmong Americans-California-Psychology, Hmong Americans-Education-Minnesota, Hmong Americans-Education-California, Refugees-United States-Psychology, Self-efficacy, Age, Sex, Marital status, Self, Efficacy, Hmong, Refugee, Study, Minnesota, California, Gender, Education, Citizenship, Anxiety, Depression, Mental health


Social cognitive theorist Albert Bandura defined resilience as the ability to organize thoughts and actions to manage prospective and unknown situations. He called it the theory of perceived self-efficacy (Bandura, 2010). The tool used to measure this construct is called the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), which assesses a broad stable sense of an individual's personal competence to efficiently deal with a variety of stressful situations. Previous research suggested that due to its positive association with mental health and well being, the GSES and theory of self-efficacy are worthy of further examination in refugees (Sulaiman-Hill and Thompson, 2011). This study examines different variables in comparison to levels of General Perceived Self-Efficacy in a group of 49 Hmong refugee adults living in Minnesota and California. Results found language proficiency, education level, citizenship status, and years lived in the U.S. to be positive predictors of higher perceived self-efficacy. Those with higher self-efficacy reported less depressive and anxiety symptoms. Age, marital, gender, and employment statuses had no significant relationship with self-efficacy scores.




v, 77 pages. Thesis (M.S.W.)-Smith College School for Social Work, 2014. Includes bibliographical references (pages 62-63)