To access this work you must either be on the Smith College campus OR have valid Smith login credentials.

On Campus users: To access this work if you are on campus please Select the Download button.

Off Campus users: To access this work from off campus, please select the Off-Campus button and enter your Smith username and password when prompted.

Non-Smith users: You may request this item through Interlibrary Loan at your own library.

Publication Date


Document Type

Honors Project




Women-Tanzania-Social conditions, Tanzania-Politics and government-21st century, Tanzania. Bunge., Women-Government policy-Tanzania, Women-Tanzania-Politics and government, Women politicians-Tanzania, Election law-Tanzania, Women legislators-Tanzania, Tanzania, Gender, Equality, Electoral quotas, Reserved seats, Special seats, Representation, Politics, Parliament


This study measures the extent that increased women's numerical (descriptive) representation has translated into women's policy (substantive) representation in the Tanzania parliament. I aim to answer the following questions: Is there variation between how well female quota MPs and female constituency MPs represent women's interests? Does the presence of either kind of female MP make a difference in public service provision and perception? To answer these questions, I determined the substantive power of quota women in Tanzania's "special seats" as compared to women in constituency seats, and the substantive power of female MPs as one group as compared to male MPs. I used data from the Tanzania parliament and Afrobarometer to examine the provision of and satisfaction with public services. If female MPs are able to successfully represent women's policy interests, we would expect to see an association between districts with female MPs and areas where there is better provision and higher satisfaction with these select public services. I found that districts with female MPs have slightly higher satisfaction with services that are particularly relevant to women; however, the actual provision of services is not necessarily better. This brings into question the effectiveness of Tanzania's special-seats system in improving not only women's descriptive but substantive representation, and whether this system helps or hurts women's representation. Further research is needed to determine if the way women are viewed in society, or the level of their symbolic representation, has changed as more women have gained leadership roles in politics.




90 pages. Honors Project-Smith College, 2014. Includes bibliographical references (pages 85-90)