Journal of Fluid Mechanics
The role of passive body dynamics on the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids is investigated. Asymptotic analysis of small-amplitude motions of a finite-length undulatory swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid is used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. Results from the analysis are compared with numerical simulations and the numerically simulated shape changes agree with the analysis at both small and large amplitudes, even for strongly elastic flows. We compute a stroke-induced swimming speed that accounts for the shape changes, but not additional effects of fluid elasticity. Elasticity-induced shape changes lead to larger-amplitude strokes for sufficiently soft swimmers in a viscoelastic fluid, and these stroke boosts can lead to swimming speed-ups. However, for the strokes we examine, we find that additional effects of fluid elasticity generically result in a slow-down. Our high amplitude strokes in strongly elastic flows lead to a qualitatively different regime in which highly concentrated elastic stresses accumulate near swimmer bodies and dramatic slow-downs are seen.
biological fluid dynamics, micro-organism dynamics, viscoelasticity
Thomases, Becca and Guy, Robert D., "The Role of Body Flexibility in Stroke Enhancements for Finite-Length Undulatory Swimmers in Viscoelastic Fluids" (2017). Mathematics and Statistics: Faculty Publications, Smith College, Northampton, MA.