Publication Date


Document Type

Masters Thesis

Study Type



School for Social Work


Teenage boys-Psychology, Masculinity, Interpersonal relations in adolescence, Adolescent, Adolescents, Masculine, Ideologies, Male, Males, Relationships, AMIRS, FQS


This research sought to investigate the following: is there a correlation between levels of happiness in interpersonal relationships and personal resistance to masculine norms? It was hypothesized that there will exist a positive correlation between resistance to masculine norms and positive relationships - as levels of resistance to masculine norms increase, self-reports of positive interpersonal relationships will increase as well. In order to examine this possible correlation, this study analyzed 42 males between the ages of 14 and 17. All participants were enrolled in high school in Boston, Massachusetts. The study utilized the most contemporary scale of masculinity in adolescents available - the Adolescent Masculine Ideology in Relationships Scale (AMIRS), developed by Chu, Porche, and Tolman (2005), as well as Bukowski, Hoza, and Boivin’s (1994) Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS), in order to examine the sample population. Results showed that a medium negative correlation exists between these two variables, t(40) = -.37, p < .01. Thus, the data supports the hypothesis of this study - that as AMIRS scores decreased, FQS scores would increase. These findings suggest that adolescent males who show resistance to masculine norms are happier in their relationships – a factor that has wide implications for clinical social workers. Further study is needed to deepen our understanding of how contemporary adolescent males identify with masculinity, however we believe that this research contributes to that building that understanding.




iii, 65 pages. M.S.W., Smith College School for Social Work, Northampton, Ma., 2016. Includes bibliographical references (pages 46-50)

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